InterPro : IPR001891

Name  Malic oxidoreductase Short Name  Malic_OxRdtase
Type  Family Description  Malic enzymes (malate oxidoreductases) catalyse the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to form pyruvate, a reaction important in a number of metabolic pathways - e.g. carbon dioxide released from the reaction may be used in sugar production during the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis []. There are 3 forms of the enzyme []: an NAD-dependent form that decarboxylates oxaloacetate; an NAD-dependent form that does not decarboxylate oxalo-acetate; and an NADPH-dependent form. The malic enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus is NADPH-dependent, and also catalyses the decarboxylation of oxalacetate []. Other proteins known to be similar to malic enzymes are the Escherichia coliscfA protein; an enzyme from Zea mays(Maize), formerly thought to be cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase []; and the hypothetical Saccharomyces cerevisiaeprotein YKL029c.Studies on the liver malic enzyme reveals that it can be alkylated by bromopyruvate, resulting in the loss of oxidative decarboxylation and the subsequent enhancement of pyruvate reductase activity []. The alkylated form is able to bind NADPH but not L-malate, indicating impaired substrate-or divalent metal ion-binding in the active site []. Sequence analysis has highlighted a cysteine residue as the point of alkylation, suggesting that it may play an important role in the activity of the enzyme [], although it is absent in the sequences from some species.There are three well conserved regions in the enzyme sequences. Two of them seem to be involved in the binding NAD or NADP. The significance of the third one, located in the central part of the enzymes, is not yet known.

Sequence Features

GO Displayer


InterPro protein domain ID --> Contigs



1 Child Features

Id Name Short Name Type
IPR023667 NAD-dependent malic enzyme, proteobacteria NAD_malic_enz_proteobac Family

4 Contains

Id Name Short Name Type
IPR016040 NAD(P)-binding domain NAD(P)-bd_dom Domain
IPR012302 Malic enzyme, NAD-binding Malic_NAD-bd Domain
IPR012301 Malic enzyme, N-terminal domain Malic_N_dom Domain
IPR015884 Malic enzyme, conserved site Malic_enzyme_CS Conserved_site

0 Found In

0 Parent Features

5 Publications

First Author Title Year Journal Volume Pages
Satterlee J Duck liver malic enzyme: sequence of a tryptic peptide containing the cysteine residue labeled by the substrate analog bromopyruvate. 1991 Biochim Biophys Acta 1079 247-52
Loeber G Human NAD(+)-dependent mitochondrial malic enzyme. cDNA cloning, primary structure, and expression in Escherichia coli. 1991 J Biol Chem 266 3016-21
Long JJ Cloning and analysis of the C4 photosynthetic NAD-dependent malic enzyme of amaranth mitochondria. 1994 J Biol Chem 269 2827-33
Walter MH Extensive sequence similarity of the bean CAD4 (cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase) to a maize malic enzyme. 1990 Plant Mol Biol 15 525-6
Kobayashi K Structure and properties of malic enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus. 1989 J Biol Chem 264 3200-5

To cite PlanMine, please refer to the following publication:

Rozanski, A., Moon, H., Brandl, H., Martín-Durán, J. M., Grohme, M., Hüttner, K., Bartscherer, K., Henry, I., & Rink, J. C.
PlanMine 3.0—improvements to a mineable resource of flatworm biology and biodiversity
Nucleic Acids Research, gky1070. doi:10.1093/nar/gky1070 (2018)