InterPro : IPR003018

Name  GAF domain Short Name  GAF
Type  Domain Description  The GAF domain is named after some of the proteins it is found in, including cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylyl cyclases and FhlA. It is also found in and guanylyl cyclases and phytochromes [, ]. The structure of a GAF domain shows that the domain shares a similar fold with the PAS domain []. Adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases catalyse ATP and GTP to the second messengers cAMP and cGMP respectively, these products up-regulating catalytic activity by binding to the regulatory GAF domain(s). The opposite hydrolysis reaction is catalysed by phosphodiesterase. cGMP-dependent 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase catalyses the conversion of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate to guanosine 5'-phosphate. Here too, cGMP regulates catalytic activity by GAF-domain binding. Phytochromes are regulatory photoreceptors in plants and bacteria which exist in two thermally stable states that are reversibly inter-convertible by light, the Pr state absorbs maximally in the red region of the spectrum, while the Pfr state absorbs maximally in the far-red region [].The GAF domain is also found in FhlA (formate hydrogen lyase transcriptional activator) and NifA, a transcriptional activator required for activation of most Nif operons, which are directly involved in nitrogen fixation. NifA interacts with sigma-54 [].

Sequence Features

GO Displayer


InterPro protein domain ID --> Contigs



1 Child Features

Id Name Short Name Type
IPR016132 Phytochrome chromophore attachment domain Phyto_chromo_attachment Domain

2 Contains

Id Name Short Name Type
IPR013516 Phytochrome chromophore binding site Phyto_chromo_BS Binding_site
IPR000614 Free Met sulfoxide reductase conserved site fRMsr_CS Conserved_site

6 Found In

Id Name Short Name Type
IPR001294 Phytochrome Phytochrome Family
IPR014265 Signal transduction histidine kinase, PEP-CTERM system, putative Sig_transdc_His_kin_PEP-CTERM Family
IPR010113 Nif-specific regulatory protein Nif-specific_regulatory_prot Family
IPR014525 Signal transduction histidine kinase, hybrid-type, ethylene sensor Sig_transdc_His_kin_hyb_Et-sen Family
IPR012226 Oxygen sensor diguanylate cyclase/c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase Dos Family
IPR012074 GAF-ANTAR transcription anti-termination regulator, putative GAF_ANTAR Family

1 Parent Features

Id Name Short Name Type
IPR029016 GAF domain-like GAF_dom_like Domain

5 Publications

First Author Title Year Journal Volume Pages
Aravind L The GAF domain: an evolutionary link between diverse phototransducing proteins. 1997 Trends Biochem Sci 22 458-9
Ho YS Structure of the GAF domain, a ubiquitous signaling motif and a new class of cyclic GMP receptor. 2000 EMBO J 19 5288-99
Santero E Role of integration host factor in stimulating transcription from the sigma 54-dependent nifH promoter. 1992 J Mol Biol 227 602-20
Hughes J Phytochrome three-dimensional structures and functions. 2010 Biochem Soc Trans 38 710-6
Heikaus CC Cyclic nucleotide binding GAF domains from phosphodiesterases: structural and mechanistic insights. 2009 Structure 17 1551-7

To cite PlanMine, please refer to the following publication:

Rozanski, A., Moon, H., Brandl, H., Martín-Durán, J. M., Grohme, M., Hüttner, K., Bartscherer, K., Henry, I., & Rink, J. C.
PlanMine 3.0—improvements to a mineable resource of flatworm biology and biodiversity
Nucleic Acids Research, gky1070. doi:10.1093/nar/gky1070 (2018)