InterPro : IPR023216

Name  Transcription regulator SKI/SnoN Short Name  Tscrpt_reg_SKI_SnoN
Type  Family Description  This entry represents the SKI/SnoN family of proteins, which are the products of the oncogenic sno gene. This gene was identified based on its homology to v-ski, the transforming component of the Sloan-Kettering virus. Both Ski and SnoN are potent negative regulators of TGF-beta. Overexpression of Ski or SnoN results in oncogenic transformation of avian fibroblasts; however it may also result in terminal differentiation and therefore the Ski/SnoN mechanism of action is thought to be complex [].These proteins do not have catalyitic or DNA-binding activity and therefore function primarily through interction with other proteins. Despite their lack of DNA-binding ability, their primary function is related to transcriptional regulation, in particular the negative regulation of TGF-beta signalling []. Ski/SnoN interact concurrently with co-Smad and R-Smad and in doing so block the ability of the Smad complexes to activate transcription of the TGF-beta target genes []. Binding of Ski/SnoN may additionally stabilise the Smad heteromer on DNA, therefore preventing further binding of active Smad complexes []. As Smad complexes critically mediate the inhibitory signals of TGF-beta in epithelial cells, high levels of SKI/SnoN may promote cell proliferation. High levels of SnoN have been shown to stabilise p53 with a resultant increase in premature senescence. SnoN interacts with the PML protein and is then recruited to the PML nuclear bodies, resulting in stabilisation of p53 and premature senescence [].

Sequence Features

GO Displayer


InterPro protein domain ID --> Contigs



4 Child Features

Id Name Short Name Type
IPR028762 Ski family transcriptional corepressor 1 SKOR1 Family
IPR028760 Ski oncogene Ski Family
IPR028373 Ski-related oncogene Sno Ski-rel_Sno Family
IPR028376 SKI family transcriptional corepressor 2 SKI_corepress_2 Family

0 Contains

0 Found In

0 Parent Features

5 Publications

First Author Title Year Journal Volume Pages
Wu JW Structural mechanism of Smad4 recognition by the nuclear oncoprotein Ski: insights on Ski-mediated repression of TGF-beta signaling. 2002 Cell 111 357-67
Suzuki H c-Ski inhibits the TGF-beta signaling pathway through stabilization of inactive Smad complexes on Smad-binding elements. 2004 Oncogene 23 5068-76
Pan D SnoN functions as a tumour suppressor by inducing premature senescence. 2009 EMBO J 28 3500-13
Deheuninck J Ski and SnoN, potent negative regulators of TGF-beta signaling. 2009 Cell Res 19 47-57
Luo K Ski and SnoN: negative regulators of TGF-beta signaling. 2004 Curr Opin Genet Dev 14 65-70

To cite PlanMine, please refer to the following publication:

Rozanski, A., Moon, H., Brandl, H., Martín-Durán, J. M., Grohme, M., Hüttner, K., Bartscherer, K., Henry, I., & Rink, J. C.
PlanMine 3.0—improvements to a mineable resource of flatworm biology and biodiversity
Nucleic Acids Research, gky1070. doi:10.1093/nar/gky1070 (2018)