InterPro : IPR020846

Name  Major facilitator superfamily domain Short Name  MFS_dom
Type  Domain Description  Transporters can be grouped in two classes, primary and secondary carriers. The primary active transporters drive solute accumulation or extrusion by using ATP hydrolysis, photon absorption, electron flow, substrate decarboxylation or methyl transfer. If charged molecules are unidirectionally pumped as a consequence of the consumption of a primary cellular energy source, electron chemical potential results. This potential can than be used to drive the active transport of additional solutes via secondary carriers.Among the different transporter the two largest families that occur ubiquitously in all classifications of organisms are the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) primary transporter superfamily (see ) and the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS). The MFS transporters are single-polypeptide secondary carriers capable only of transporting small solutes in response to chemiosmotic ion gradients [, ]. They function as uniporters, symporters or antiporters. In addition their solute specificity are also diverse. MFS proteins contain 12 transmembrane regions (with some variations).The 3D-structure of human GLUT1, an archetype of the major facilitator superfamily has been solved []. Helices 1-5, 8, 10-12 are arranged in a 9-member barrel-like manner, delimiting a hydrophilic central channel. Helix 7 is located in the centre of the channel suggesting a role in regulating transport of solutes through the channel.Some proteins known to belong to the MFS superfamily are listed below:Sugar transporters. The largest family, they can function by uniport, solute-solute antiport or solute-cation symport depending on the system or conditions (see ).Drug:H+ antiporters or multidrug transporters. The extrusion of cytotoxic drugs from multidrug resistant cells by overexpressed multidrug transporter is an important cause of failure of the drug-based treatment of patient with cancers or infections by pathogenic microorganisms.Organophosphate:Pi antiporters (OPA). Small permeases restricted to bacteria.Oligosaccharide:H+ symporters (OHS). Permeases restricted to bacteria.Metabolite:H+ symporters (MHS).Nitrate/nitrite symporter (NNP). This family is present in bacteria, fungi and plants. It catalyzes either nitrate uptake or nitrite efflux.Phosphate:H+ symporters (PHS). It is present only in fungi and plants.Nucleoside:H+ symporters (NHS). Small permeases restricted to Gram-negative bacteria.Oxalate/formate antiporters (OFA). Present in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes.Sialate:H+ symporters (SHS). Small permeases restricted to Gram-negative bacteria.Monocarboxylate porters (MCP).Anion:cation symporters (ACS).Aromatic acid:H+ symporters (AAHS). They transport a variety of aromatic acids as well as cis,cis-muconate. One member of this family (PCAK) serves as a chemoreceptor allowing the bacteria to swim up concentration gradients of its substrate [].Cyanate permeases (CP). Small bacterial proteins of around 400 residues.Proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POT). AAHS and POT are the most divergent MFS families. This entry represents the MFS superfamily domain, which consists of twelve transmembrane helices. This domain can be found in glycerol-3-phosphate transporter from Escherichia coli, which transports glycerol-3-phosphate into the cytoplasm and inorganic phosphate into the periplasm []. The E. coli proton/sugar transporter lactose permease (LacY) also carries this domain, and acts to couple lactose and H+ translocation [, ].

Sequence Features

GO Displayer


InterPro protein domain ID --> Contigs



0 Child Features

4 Contains

Id Name Short Name Type
IPR005829 Sugar transporter, conserved site Sugar_transporter_CS Conserved_site
IPR018456 PTR2 family proton/oligopeptide symporter, conserved site PTR2_symporter_CS Conserved_site
IPR021159 Glycerate/sugar phosphate transporter, conserved site Sugar-P_transporter_CS Conserved_site
IPR018457 LacY/RafB permease family, conserved site LacY/RafB_perm_fam_CS Conserved_site

2 Found In

Id Name Short Name Type
IPR004742 Sialic acid transporter SA_transporter Family
IPR022308 Synaptic vesicle protein SV2 SV2 Family

0 Parent Features

7 Publications

First Author Title Year Journal Volume Pages
Pao SS Major facilitator superfamily. 1998 Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62 1-34
Harwood CS Identification of the pcaRKF gene cluster from Pseudomonas putida: involvement in chemotaxis, biodegradation, and transport of 4-hydroxybenzoate. 1994 J Bacteriol 176 6479-88
Walmsley AR Sugar transporters from bacteria, parasites and mammals: structure-activity relationships. 1998 Trends Biochem Sci 23 476-81
Abramson J Structure and mechanism of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. 2003 Science 301 610-5
Huang Y Structure and mechanism of the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter from Escherichia coli. 2003 Science 301 616-20
Mirza O Structural evidence for induced fit and a mechanism for sugar/H+ symport in LacY. 2006 EMBO J 25 1177-83
Dyková H [The prognostic value of chorionic-gonadotrophins in the urine of miscarrying women]. 1975 Cesk Gynekol 40 417-20

To cite PlanMine, please refer to the following publication:

Rozanski, A., Moon, H., Brandl, H., Martín-Durán, J. M., Grohme, M., Hüttner, K., Bartscherer, K., Henry, I., & Rink, J. C.
PlanMine 3.0—improvements to a mineable resource of flatworm biology and biodiversity
Nucleic Acids Research, gky1070. doi:10.1093/nar/gky1070 (2018)