InterPro : IPR024186

Name  Signal transduction response regulator, heterocyst pattern formation, PatA Short Name  Sig_transdc_resp-reg_PatA
Type  Family Description  This group contains response regulators involved in the control of heterocyst pattern formation. Heterocysts are microaerobic, N2-fixing cells that form in a patterned array within O2-producing filamentous cyanobacteria []. PatA plays a role in controlling the differentiation process that produces heterocysts [, , ]. PatA and HetR are believed to be components of the same environment-sensing regulatory circuit in species of Anabaena[, , ].Response regulators of the microbial two-component signal transduction systems typically consist of an N-terminal CheY-like receiver (phosphoacceptor) domain and a C-terminal output (usually DNA-binding) domain. Members of this group, however, have the receiver domain in the C-terminal region, and the exact function of the N-terminal domain is not clear yet. In two-component signal transduction systems, in response to an environmental stimulus, a phosphoryl group is transferred from the His residue of sensor histidine kinase to an Asp residue in the CheY-like receiver domain of the cognate response regulator [, , ]. Phosphorylation of the receiver domain induces conformational changes that activate an associated output domain, which in turn triggers the response. Phosphorylation-induced conformational changes in response regulator molecules have been demonstrated in direct structural studies [].

Sequence Features

GO Displayer


InterPro protein domain ID --> Contigs



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7 Publications

First Author Title Year Journal Volume Pages
Stock AM Two-component signal transduction. 2000 Annu Rev Biochem 69 183-215
West AH Histidine kinases and response regulator proteins in two-component signaling systems. 2001 Trends Biochem Sci 26 369-76
Kern D Structure of a transiently phosphorylated switch in bacterial signal transduction. 1999 Nature 402 894-8
Grebe TW The histidine protein kinase superfamily. 1999 Adv Microb Physiol 41 139-227
Wolk CP Heterocyst formation. 1996 Annu Rev Genet 30 59-78
Buikema WJ Expression of the Anabaena hetR gene from a copper-regulated promoter leads to heterocyst differentiation under repressing conditions. 2001 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 2729-34
Liang J The patA gene product, which contains a region similar to CheY of Escherichia coli, controls heterocyst pattern formation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120. 1992 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89 5655-9

To cite PlanMine, please refer to the following publication:

Rozanski, A., Moon, H., Brandl, H., Martín-Durán, J. M., Grohme, M., Hüttner, K., Bartscherer, K., Henry, I., & Rink, J. C.
PlanMine 3.0—improvements to a mineable resource of flatworm biology and biodiversity
Nucleic Acids Research, gky1070. doi:10.1093/nar/gky1070 (2018)