InterPro : IPR014174

Name  CRISPR-associated protein, Cas6-related Short Name  CRISPR-assoc_prot_Cas6-rel
Type  Family Description  The CRISPR-Cas system is a prokaryotic defense mechanism against foreign genetic elements. The key elements of this defense system are the Cas proteins and the CRISPR RNA. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) are a family of DNA direct repeats separated by regularly sized non-repetitive spacer sequences that are found in most bacterial and archaeal genomes []. CRISPRs appear to provide acquired resistance against mobile genetic elements (viruses, transposable elements and conjugative plasmids). CRISPR clusters contain sequences complementary to antecedent mobile elements and target invading nucleic acids. CRISPR clusters are transcribed and processed into CRISPR RNA (crRNA).The defense reaction is divided into three stages. In the adaptation stage, the invader DNA is cleaved, and a piece of it is selected to be integrated as a new spacer into the CRISPR locus, where it is stored as an identity tag for future attacks by this invader. During the second stage (the expression stage), the CRISPR RNA (pre-crRNA) is transcribed and subsequently processed into the mature crRNAs. In the third stage (the interference stage), Cas proteins, together with crRNAs, identify and degrade the invader [, , ].The CRISPR-Cas systems have been sorted into three major classes. In CRISPR-Cas types I and III, the mature crRNA is generally generated by a member of the Cas6 protein family. Whereas in system III the Cas6 protein acts alone, in some class I systems it is part of a complex of Cas proteins known as Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense). The Cas6 protein is necessary for crRNA production whereas the additional Cas proteins that form the Cascade complex are needed for crRNA stability []. Members of this entry resemble the Cas6 proteins described by in having a C-terminal motif GXGXXXXXGXG, where the single X of each GXG is hydrophobic and the spacer XXXXX has at least one Lys or Arg. Examples are found in cas gene operons of CRISPR regions in Anabaena variabilis(strain ATCC 29413/PCC 7937), Leptospira interrogans, Gemmata obscuriglobus UQM 2246, and twice in Myxococcus xanthus(strain DK 1622). Oddly, an orphan member is found in Thiobacillus denitrificans(strain ATCC 25259), whose genome does not seem to contain other evidence of CRISPR repeats or cas genes.
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Proteins

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5 Publications

First Author Title Year Journal Volume Pages
Kunin V Evolutionary conservation of sequence and secondary structures in CRISPR repeats. 2007 Genome Biol 8 R61
Barrangou R CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes. 2007 Science 315 1709-12
Makarova KS A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, functional analogies with eukaryotic RNAi, and hypothetical mechanisms of action. 2006 Biol Direct 1 7
Howard JA Helicase dissociation and annealing of RNA-DNA hybrids by Escherichia coli Cas3 protein. 2011 Biochem J 439 85-95
Brendel J A complex of Cas proteins 5, 6, and 7 is required for the biogenesis and stability of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crispr)-derived rnas (crrnas) in Haloferax volcanii. 2014 J Biol Chem 289 7164-77



To cite PlanMine, please refer to the following publication:

Rozanski, A., Moon, H., Brandl, H., Martín-Durán, J. M., Grohme, M., Hüttner, K., Bartscherer, K., Henry, I., & Rink, J. C.
PlanMine 3.0—improvements to a mineable resource of flatworm biology and biodiversity
Nucleic Acids Research, gky1070. doi:10.1093/nar/gky1070 (2018)